Outline #1 - World Theatre I

 

INTRODUCTION and RITUAL                                     

                                                                                                                                                                  Study Guide Link

                  World Theatre

                                    Theatre in Everyday Life

                                    Culture and Theatre

1.                               Prohibitions Against Theatre

 

                  The Origins of Theatre

                 Imitation                              

                  Storytelling

                                    Shaman

2.            Ritual Origins of Theatre.   

                                    Masks in the Theatre

 

3.            Theatre and Ritual (Similarities and Differences)

 

4.                              The Abydos Ritual of Egypt

                                   

 

AFRICAN THEATRE

                                                                                                                                                                  Study Guide Link

Cultural Background

                  African World View

                  Religion and Ritual

                                    Dogon

5.             Differences between European and African forms

Colonialism and The Independence Movement

                  Developmental Theatre

                 

African Theatre and Drama

West Africa

Nigeria

                                    Afikpo (Okumkpa plays)

                                    Igbo (Odo Festival)

                                    Egungen Festivals

                                                      Yoruba Opera (or Traveling Theatre)

Hubert Ogunde

6.                                                 Wole Soyinka (1934 - )

                                                      Death and the King's Horseman

The Strong Breed 1964

                                                      The Lion and the Jewel 1964

                                    Ghana

Concert Parties

                                                      Mohammed Ben Abdallah

                                                                        The Slaves

                                                                        Verdict of the Cobra

                                                                        The Witch of Mopti

                                    Sierra Leone

Storytelling among the Mende peoples

Senegal

Négritude

                                    Ivory Coast

Bernard Dadié and The Folklore & Cultural Center

                                    Mali

Bamana Youth Theatre

                  North Africa

                                    Egypt

                                                      Tawfiq al Hakim 

                                                                        People of the Cave 1935

                                    Algeria

Kateb Yacine 

East Africa

                                    Kenya

7.                                                 Ngugi wa Thiong'o

The Black Hermit, 1963

                 The Trial of Dedan Kimathi, 1976

                  The Trial of Dedan Kimathi 1975

I Will Marry When I Want, 1977

                                    Tanzania

Penina Muhando Mlama

Central Africa

                                    Zambia

Chikwakwa Theatre

                                    Zimbabwe

Pungwe 

                                    Botswana Popular Theatre Campaign

South Africa

                                    Township Musicals

                                    People's Experimental Theatre

                                    Collaborations:

Sizwe Bansi is Dead and The Island by Athol Fugard, Winston Ntshona, John Kani

Woza Albert! by Barney Simon, Mbongeni Ngema, Percy Mtwa

 


GREEK THEATRE

                                                                                                                                                                  Study Guide Link

                  Cultural Background

                  Greek Religion

8.                               - Dionysus

                  Democracy

                  Personal Freedom

                  Greek Art

                                    Greek Concept of Beauty

                                    Greek Architecture

                                    Greek Sculpture

 

                  Greek Theatre

                  Origins

9.                               Thespis

                                    Dithyramb

10.          The City Dionysia

                                    Archon

                                    Choregos

                                    Satyr Play

 

                  Theatrical Conventions:

11.                            Acting Style

12.                            Chorus (Music and Dance)

                  Theatre Architecture:

                                    The Theatre of Dionysus (Classical 499-336 BC)

14.                                              Orchestra, Skene, Theatron

                                                      Pinakes

                                                      Periaktoi

                                                      Ekkyklema                                                                                                                  

                                                      Mechane                                                                                                                                         

                                                      Paradoi

 

                 Hellenistic Theatre

 

                  Greek Drama

15.          Aeschylus (523-456 BC): The Oresteia

16.          Sophocles (496-406 BC): Antigone

17.          Euripides (480-406 BC)

18.          Aristophanes (448-380 BC)

19.          Menander (342-291 BC)

20.         Aristotle's Poetics (335-323 BC)

 


Outline #2 - World Theatre I

 

ROMAN THEATRE

                                                                                                                                                                  Study Guide Link

                  Cultural Background

                  Pater Familias (Head of the Family)

                  Roman Religion

                                   - Christian Opposition to the Theatre

                  Roman Law

                  Roman Art and Sculpture vs. Greek

 

                  Roman Theatre

                  Etruscan Origins

1.             Atellan Farce (Fabula Atellana)

                  Roman Festivals

                                    Dominus Gregis

2.             Roman Mimes

3.            Pantomime

                  Acting Style

                  Theatre Architecture:

4.                               Scaena Frons                                                      

                                   Pulpitum                                                                                                                       

                                    Vomitoria                           

                                    Periaktoi

                                    Auleum

                                    Siparium

 

                  Roman Drama

5.            Plautus (254-184 BC): Menaechmi (c. 165BC)

6.            Terence (195-149 BC)

7.            Seneca (5-65 AD)

8.             Horace (65-8 BC): Ars Poetica (19BC)

 

 

MEDIEVAL THEATRE

                                                                                                                                                                  Study Guide Link

Cultural Background

                 Byzantium

                  The Rise of Islam

                 Feudalism

9.             The Catholic Church

10.                            - Corpus Christi

                                    - The Gothic Cathedral

 

                  Medieval Theatre

11.          The Liturgical Drama

                                    - Tropes

                  Vernacular Religious Drama

12.                            - Mystery or Cycle Plays

                                                      - Confraternities (Guilds)

13.          Platea and Mansion Staging

14.          Processional and/or Stationary Stages

                                    Pageant Masters

                  Secular theatre:

15.                            Farce

16.                            Chambers of Rhetoric

                                    Tableaux Vivants       

                                    Interlude

                                    Street Pageants

                                    Tournaments

 

                  Medieval Drama

17.          Hroswitha (9th - 10th century)

18.          Second Shepherd's Play  (Wakefield Cycle)

                  Miracle Plays

19.          Morality Plays

                                    Everyman 1500

20.          Decline of Medieval Drama

 

 


Outline #3 - World Theatre I

 

 

ASIAN THEATRE

                                                                                                                                                                  Study Guide Link

                  Cultural Background

                  Asian Religion and the Arts

                                    - Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam

                  Importance of Dance in Drama

1.             Shared Literatures:

                                    The Mahabharata

                                    The Ramayana

                  Aesthetic Differences East and West

 

                  Indian Theatre

                  Hinduism

2.             Sanskrit Drama

                                    The Little Clay Cart by Bhasa (2nd-3rd century A.D.)

                                    Shakuntula by Kalidasa (5th century A.D.)

3.                               Natya Sastra (c. 200 BC - 200 AD)

                                    - Rasa

                  Dance Dramas

                                    - Chhau mask dances

                                    - Kathakali

 

                  Chinese Theatre

                  Confucianism

                  The Pear Garden, 714 A.D.

                  Theatre of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)

4.                               - The Romance of the Western Chamber by Wang Shifu (13th Century)

                  Theatre of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

                                    - Lute Song by Gao Ming (14th century)

                  Ch¹ing Drama (1644-1911)

                                    Peach Blossom Fan by Kung Shang-jen (1699)

5.                               Chinese  (Peking or Beijing) Opera

                                                      - Staging and Performance Practices

                                                      - Character Roles

                  Chinese Theatre in the 20th Century

 

                  Japanese Theatre

                  Shinto and Zen Buddhism

                  The Japanese Tea Ceremony

6.             Noh Drama

                                    Origins

                                                      Kan'ami (1333-1384)

                                                      Zeami Motokiyo (1363-1443)

                                                                        The Kadensho

7.                               The Noh Stage

                                                     Hashigakari

8.                               Masks and Costumes

9.                               Shite, Waki, and Tsure

 

10.          Bunraku (Puppet Theatre)

11.                            Chikamatsu Monzaemon

 

12.          Kabuki

13.                            Origins (Okuni of Izumo)

                                    Development of Kabuki

                                    Producing Kabuki

                                                      Hanamichi

14.                                              Onnagata

 

                  Theatre of Thailand

15.                            Khon Plays

 

                  Cambodian Theatre

                                    Royal Cambodian Ballet

 

Performance in Indonesia    

16.                            Javanese Shadow Puppets

 

 

ASIAN-AMERICAN THEATRE

 

                  Immigration Patterns

                  The Asian Stereotypes

                                    Teahouse of the August Moon

                                    King and I

                                    Flower Drum Song

17.          The East West Players, L.A.

                  The Pan-Asian Theatre, N.Y.

                  Asian-American Dramatists

                                    Wakako Yamauchi - The Music Lesson, And The Soul Shall Dance

18.                            Philip Kan Gotanda - The Wash

19.                            David Henry Hwang - Golden Child, M. Butterfly

20.                            Velina Hasu Houston - Tea

                                    Alice Tuan - Last of the Suns,  Dim Sums,  Crown Goose

                                    Diana Son - Boy,   R.A.W. (Because I'm a Woman)

 

 


Outline #4 - World Theatre I

 

THEATRE OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

                                                                                                                                                                  Study Guide Link

                 Cultural Background

                  The Growth of Nationalism

                  Origins of Capitalism

1.             The Renaissance Man (and Woman)

                 Humanism

                  Perspective Painting

 

                  Italian Theatre

2.            Intermezzi

3.            Opera:

                                    The Camerata (Florence)

                  The New Stagecraft:

4.                               Proscenium Arch

5.                               Sebastiano Serlio (1475-1554) - Architettura 1537

                                    Scene Shifting

                                                      Niccolo Sabbattini (1574-1654)

6.                                                 Giacomo Torelli (1608-1678) - Chariot and Pole

                                    Special Effects and Stage Lighting

7.                               Teatro Olympico 1580-1584

8.                               Teatro Farnese 1618

9.             Commedia Dell'Arte

                                    Male and Female Performers

                                                      Capitano,

                                                      Dottore,

                                                      Pantalone,

                                                      Innamorati (lovers),

                                                      Harlequin

                                                                        Slapstick & Lazzi

 

                  Italian Drama

10.          Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), The Mandrake (Manadragola) 1520

11.          The Neoclassical Ideal

                                    Lodovico Castelvetro (1505-1571)                                     

                                    Verisimilitude

                                    The Three Unities

 

THE SPANISH GOLDEN AGE and HISPANIC-AMERICAN

                                                                                                                                                                  Study Guide Link

                  Cultural Background

                 The Moorish Occupation (9th - 15th centuries)

 

                  Spanish Theatre

12.          Autos Sacramentales

                                    Carros

13.          Corrales

                                    Gradas

                                    Patio                                                                                                                                                    

                                    Cazuela                                                                                                                                                              

                                    Aposentos

                                    Cazuela                                                                                                                                                              

                                    Patio

                 Zarzuela

 

                  Spanish Drama

14.          Lope de Vega (1562-1635): Fuenteovejuna (c. 1613)

15.          Tirso de Molina (1569-1648): The Trickster of Seville (c. 1616)

16.          Calderon de la Barca (1600-1681): Life is a Dream (1635)

 

Hispanic-American Theatre

Pre-Columbian Theatre

                                    Aztec and Mayan Ritual

17.                            Rabinal Achi (Quiche)

                  Colonial Theatre

18.                            The Moors and the Christians

                                    El sacrificio de Isaac (The Sacrifice of Isaac)

                  19th - 20th Century

                                    La Compania Espanola de la Familia Estrella (The Estrella Company)

                                    The Mexican Revolution 1910-1920

                                    Types: Drama, Zarzuela, Comedia, Revista, Variedades

                                    Los Angeles Theatres:

                                                      Teatro Hidalgo 1911-1934

                                    Los Angeles Playwrights:

                                                      Adalberto Elias Gonzalez

                                                      Gabriel Navarro

                                    Performers:

19.                                              La Chata Noloesca 1903 - 1979

                                    The Decline of Theatre in 30s

                               The Carpas (Tent Theatres)

                                                 The Pelado

             Chicano Theatre

                               El Teatro Campesino (The Farmworker's Theatre)

20.                            Luis Valdez

                                                 Las dos caras del patroncito (The Two Faces of the Boss) 1965

                                    The Teatro Movement

                                                 Teatro de la Esperanza  1969: Guadalupe 1974

             Contemporary Chicano/Chicana Playwrights:

                               Milcha Sanchez Scott

                               Maria Irene Fornes

                               Cherrie Moraga

                               Octavio Solis: Man of the Flesh 1991

                               Luis Alfaro: Electricidad 2005


Outline #5 - World Theatre I

 

 

THE THEATRE OF THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE

                                                                                                                                                                  Study Guide Link

                  Cultural Background

1.             Puritan Opposition to the Theatre

2.             Government Regulation of the Theatre                                                           

                  Defeat of the Spanish Armada 1588

3.             Master of the Revels 1572                     

                  Elizabeth I (reigned 1558-1603)                                                              

                  James I (1603-1625)

                  Charles I (1625-1649)                                                    

                                                                                                             

                  Elizabethan Theatre

                  Acting Companies:

4.                               Lord Chamberlain's Men 1594 - King's Men 1603

                  The Lord Admiral's Men - Prince Henry's Men 1603 - Queen Anne's Men 1604

 

5.             Philip Henslowe

 

6.             Performance Style

 

7.             The Public Theatres

                                    The Theatre 1576 (James Burbage)                                                                      

8.                               Johannes  de Witt's drawing of the Swan, 1596

9.                               The Globe Theatre (1599, 1613, and 1997)                

                                                      Audience Seating                                                                               

                                                      Tiring House                                                                                                                              

                                                      The Heavens

 

10.          The Private Theatres

                                    Blackfriars

11.                            Inigo Jones (1573-1652)

 

                  Elizabethan Drama

12.          The University Wits

13.          Thomas Kyd (1557-1595), The Spanish Tragedy 1587

14.          Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), Dr. Faustus 1588

15.          William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

                                    Stratford-upon-Avon

16.                            Histories

                - Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, Richard III

17.                            Comedies

                                  - Midsummer Night's Dream, Twelfth Night, As You Like It,

                                    Taming of the Shrew

18.                            Tragedies

                - Romeo & Juliet, Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth

19.          Ben Jonson (1572-1637)

20.          Jacobean Drama


STUDY GUIDES

 

 

INTRODUCTION and RITUAL                                     

 

1.         Prohibitions Against Theatre

              What have been the main reasons for Prohibitions Against Theatre throughout history?

              Describe examples of times when theatre was banned and how it was prevented.

              Are there any examples of prohibitions against theatre in modern times?

 

2.        Ritual Origins of Theatre

              Why do some scholars believe that theatre grew out of ritual?

              How would theatre have evolved from ritual?  Describe the theoretical process.

 

 

3.        Theatre and Ritual (Similarities and Differences)

                  How is theatre and ritual similar?  What elements are necessary to have both theatre and ritual?

              How is theatre different from ritual? 

              Why were masks important to ritual?  Does theatre still use masks?

 

4.         The Abydos Ritual of Egypt

              What is The Abydos Ritual of Egypt? 

              Describe what may have happened there.

              Why is this ritual/drama significant for the history of theatre?

             

 

AFRICAN THEATRE

 

5.         How are European and African forms of theatre different?

              How have these differences drawn negative views of African theatre from European critics?

 

6.         Wole Soyinka

Describe the dramatic work of Wole Soyinka.

              What themes and types of characters and plots does he write.

              Use one play to show examples of his style and focus.

 

7.         Ngugi wa Thiong'o

Describe the dramatic work of Ngugi wa Thiong'o.

              What themes and types of characters and plots does he write.

              Use one play to show examples of his style and focus.

 

 

 

 

 

GREEK THEATRE

 

8.         Dionysus

              Describe the Greek God Dionysus.  

              How was he born?

              What qualities did he represent?

              Why did Dionysus become associated with theatre?

             

9.         Thespis

              Who was Thespis?

              What significant part did Thespis play in the origin of theatre?

              How did Thespis represent the difference between ritual and theatre?

 

10.      The City Dionysia

              Describe the sequence of events at The City Dionysia.

              How were the plays organized and performed?

              How were the archon, choregos and playwrights involved?

 

11.     Acting Style

              What may have been the predominant Acting Style of Greek Classical theatre?

              What examples show that the style may have been conventionalized?

              What examples show that the style may have been realistic?

 

12.      Chorus (Music and Dance)    

              What were the functions of the Greek Chorus.  How did it serve the play?

              How does the presence of a chorus represent the nature of Greek Classical theatre?

 

 

14.      The Theatre of Dionysus

              Describe the three main sections of  The Theatre of Dionysus.

              How were the Orchestra, Skene, and Theatron connected?

 

15.      Aeschylus

              Describe the three plays of the Oresteia  of Aeschylus.

              What themes did the play focus on?

Describe the main characters used by the playwright?

              How was the Oresteia a representation of the playwright's style.

 

16.      Sophocles

              Describe the dramatic work of Sophocles.

              What themes did the playwright focus on?

What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

              Use one play to show examples of the playwright's style.

 

17.      Euripides

              Describe the dramatic work of Euripides.

              What themes did the playwright focus on?

What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

              Use one play to show examples of the playwright's style.

 

18.      Aristophanes

              Describe the dramatic work of Aristophanes.

              What themes did the playwright focus on?

What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

              Use one play to show examples of the playwright's style.

 

19.      Menander

              If no plays by Menander were discovered til the 20th century, why was his influence so strong on Greek New Comedy?

              What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

              How long has domestic comedy lasted in the theatre?

             

20.     Aristotle's Poetics

              Describe the six elements of the drama from Aristotle's Poetics.

              What was his definition of tragedy.

              What did Aristotle say in The Poetics about the origins of theatre?

 

 

ROMAN THEATRE

 

1.             Atellan Farce (Fabula Atellana)

                  What was the Atellan Farce and how did it originate?

                  Describe how the Atellan Farce contributed significantly to Roman theatre.

                 

2.             Roman Mimes

                  What were the Roman Mimes?  Describe this form.

                  Where did the mimes perform?

                  What was significant about their performers?

 

3.            Pantomime

                  What was Pantomime?  How was it performed?

                  What subject matter was used in pantomimes?

                  Which social group favored this form?

 

4.             Scaena Frons

                  Describe what the Scaena Frons looked like and what it was to represent in the Roman plays.

                  What was it used for?

                  What was developed to "mask" the Scaena Frons and bring focus to the actors?                                                    

 

5.            Plautus

                  Describe the dramatic work of Plautus.

What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

                  Use one play to show examples of the playwright's style.

 

6.            Terence

                  Describe the dramatic work of Terence.

             What themes did the playwright focus on?

What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

                  Use one play to show examples of the playwright's style.

 

7.            Seneca

                  Describe the dramatic work of Seneca.

             What themes did the playwright focus on?

What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

                  Use one play to show examples of the playwright's style.

 

8.             Horace

                  What did Horace believe was the purpose of drama?

                  What are some of the rules that Horace prescribed in Ars Poetica?

                  Define Decorum.

 

MEDIEVAL THEATRE

 

9.             The Catholic Church

                  What power did the The Catholic Church have in Medieval times?

                  Why did the church reverse its ban against theatre and embrace it?

                  How did the church influence the development of Medieval Theatre.

 

 

10.          Corpus Christi

                  Why did Corpus Christi become an important date for theatre?

                  What kinds of plays were produced then?  What time of year were they done?

 

11.          The Liturgical Drama

                  Describe the Quem Queritis trope.

                  How did The Liturgical Drama develop from tropes?

 

12.          Mystery or Cycle Plays

                  What groups performed the Cycle Plays outside the church?

                  What stories did the Cycle Plays cover?

                  How long were the Cycle Plays?  How often were they produced?

 

13.          Platea and Mansion Staging

                  What was the Platea and the Mansion?

                  How were the cycle plays performed inside the churches and later outside?

                 

14.          Processional and/or Stationary Stages

                  Describe Processional staging and how it may have been used for the cycle plays.

                  Who was the Pageant Master in England?

                  How were Stationary Stages set up on the continent for cycle plays?

 

15.          Farce

                  What kind of drama was Farce?  What did it usually focus upon?

                  Describe an example of a well-known medieval farce.

 

16.          Secular Forms:

                  Describe the following secular entertainments: Chambers of Rhetoric, Tableaux Vivants, Interludes, Street Pageants, and Tournaments.

 

17.          Hroswitha

Who was Hroswitha and what themes did she focus on?

What types of characters and plots did she use in her works?

How were her plays produced?

 

18.          Second Shepherd's Play

                  What biblical story does the Second Shepherd's Play represent?

                  How does the story deviate from the bible? 

                  What is significant about this added plot for medieval drama?

 

19.          Morality Plays

                  What was the purpose of Morality Plays?

                  How did Morality Plays use Allegorical characters?

                  What lesson is conveyed in the morality play Everyman?

 

20.          Decline of Medieval Drama

                  What factors contributed to the Decline of Medieval Drama?

                  What new era replaced Medieval Theatre and also contributed to its decay?

 

 

ASIAN THEATRE

 

1.             Shared Literatures

                  Describe the two great Hindu epics, The Mahabharata and The Ramayana.

                  Why are they so important to the development of theatre throughout Asia?

 

2.             Sanskrit Drama

                  Describe Sanskrit Drama in India. 

                  What was the purpose in Sanskrit Drama. 

                  Describe Shakuntula by Kalidasa and why it represents the best of Sanskrit Drama from India.

 

 

3.             Natya Sastra

                  What are some of the main rules for drama from the Natya Sastra?

                  Describe Rasa and its effect on the audience.

 

4.             The Romance of the Western Chamber

                  What is the basis story of The Romance of the Western Chamber by Wang Shifu?

                  How does this play represent the drama of the Yuan Dynasty?

 

 

5.             Chinese (Peking or Beijing) Opera

                  What factors contributed to the origins of Chinese (Peking or Beijing) Opera?

                  What are some staging and performance practices in Peking Opera?

                  What are the four main Character Roles?

 

6.             Noh Drama

                  How did Noh Drama originate?  What was its purpose?

                  What contributions did  Kan'ami and Zeami Motokiyo make to Noh?

 

7.             The Noh Stage

                  Describe the elements of The Noh Stage, and how each is important to the aesthetic aspect of Noh.

                 What does the Hashigakari represesent?

 

8.             Masks and Costumes

                  Describe the Masks and Costumes used in Noh Drama.

                  Why are the expressions on the mask subtle and restrained?

                 

9.             Noh Character Roles

                  Describe the major roles in Noh of the Shite, Waki, Tsure, and Kyogen.

                  How does a performer study to be a Noh actor?

 

10.          Bunraku

                  How did Bunraku (Puppet Theatre) begin?

                  How are the puppets operated in Bunraku?

                  What is the role of the chanter (joruri) in Bunraku?

 

11.          Chikamatsu Monzaemon

                  Who was Chikamatsu Monzaemon?

                  What did he write about in his plays? 

                  What style of language did he use in his works?

 

12.          Kabuki

                  What is the performance style of Kabuki?

                  What kind of scenery and costumes are used in Kabuki?

                  What is the purpose of the hanamichi?

 

 

13.          Origins of Kabuki

                  Describe the Origins of Kabuki.   Who was Okuni?

                  What were some early problems in the development of Kabuki?

 

14.          Onnagata

                  What is an Onnagata, and why are they used in Kabuki?  Where did the idea come from?

                  How does the onnagata tradition represent the theatricality of Kabuki?

 

15.          Khon Plays

                  What stories are told in the Khon Plays of Thailand?

                  Where do these stories come from?

                  How are masks used in Khon Plays?  Do women perfom?

 

16.          Javanese Shadow Puppets

                  What stories are told with Javanese Shadow Puppets?

                  Describe the actual puppets and the role of the dalang.

                  When are these plays performed?

 

 

ASIAN-AMERICAN THEATRE

 

17.          The East West Players

                  Describe the origins of The East West Players, L.A.

                  Who began the company and for what reasons?

                  What were some important productions at East-West?

                  What is East-West producing this year?

 

18.          Philip Kan Gotanda.

                  Describe the dramatic work of Philip Kan Gotanda.

             What themes did the playwright focus on?

What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

                  Use one play to show examples of the playwright's style.

 

19.          David Henry Hwang

                  Describe the dramatic work of David Henry Hwang.

             What themes did the playwright focus on?

What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

                  Use one play to show examples of the playwright's style.

 

20.          Velina Hasu Houston

                  Describe the dramatic work of Velina Hasu Houston.

             What themes did the playwright focus on?

What types of characters and plots were used by the playwright?

                  Use one play to show examples of the playwright's style.

 

 

 

 

THEATRE OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

 

1.         The Renaissance Man (and Woman)

              What was the Renaissance?  What does the term mean?

              What do we mean by "The Renaissance Man"?  Define the concept.

              What does this tell us about the Renaissance?

              Did this concept extend to women at that time?  Example?

              One example from that time, and from today?

             

2.        Intermezzi

              What were intermezzi?  Why were they so popular at the time?

              What significance did they have on European theatre?

              What theatre form did the spectacle of intermezzi promote?

 

3.        Opera:

              How did opera begin?  What was The Camerata (Florence)?

              What impact did opera have on European theatre?  Examples of opera composers?

              What is the text of opera called?  What is an aria?  Recitative?

             

4.         Proscenium Arch

              What were some theories of the origin of the proscenium arch?

              What does "proscenium" mean? What is the purpose of the arch?

              How does this audience/performer relationship differ from arena spaces like the Greek?

 

5.         Sebastiano Serlio (1475-1554) - Architettura 1537

              What did this court architect introduce to stage design? 

              Describe his wing and drop system.

              What were his three basic settings?  Why did he use a raked stage?

 

6.         Giacomo Torelli (1608-1678) -

              Describe the Chariot and Pole system of scene shifting. 

              What was the scenic importance of this technique?

 

7.         Teatro Olympico 1580-1584

              Who were the architects and what was their purpose?

              What Roman treatise inspired them?

              Describe the theatre space.  What was unique about it?

              How well did the building do as a practicing theatre?

 

8.         Teatro Farnese 1618

              Describe the stage, orchestra and seating of this theatre.

              What was revolutionary about this theatre?

              What other scenic innovation is attributed to its architect?

 

 

 

 

 

9.         Commedia Dell'Arte    

              What does the title of this form mean?  Where did they perform?

              Describe commedia and what made the form distinctive.

              What types of plays were performed by these troupes?

              Describe two commedia characters;  How did commedia influence other forms?

 

10.      Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), The Mandrake (Manadragola) 1520

              What novel made Machiavelli famous and how did it reflect the era?

              How is The Mandrake a clear example of Italian Renaissance playwriting?

              Why is this play the only one every produced today from that time?

 

11.      The Neoclassical Ideal

              Describe the Neoclassical Ideals:

                  What is Verisimilitude?  Decorum?  Genre?  What are The Three Unities?

              What did they new precepts mean for new plays?

              How did the rules influence European drama?

              Why were these rules so important to Renaissance scholars? 

 

 

THE SPANISH GOLDEN AGE and HISPANIC-AMERICAN

 

12.      Autos Sacramentales

              Describe the autos of the Spanish Golden Age.

              How were the autos produced?  Who organized the event?  Who performed in them?

              What kind of style was used in the language of the autos?

 

13.      Corrales

              What was a Spanish corrale? Describe the parts of the corrales.

              How did they begin in Spain?

              Why were the women kept separate?

 

14.      Lope de Vega (1562-1635): Fuenteovejuna (c. 1613)

              Describe some of the events in the theatrical life of Lope de Vega.

              What types of plays did de Vega write?

              Describe the main action of Fuenteovejuna.

 

15.      Tirso de Molina (1569-1648): The Trickster of Seville (c. 1616)

              Who was Tirso de Molina?

              Describe the central character of The Trickster of Seville.

              Why did the Don Juan character become so popular?

 

16.      Calderon de la Barca (1600-1681): Life is a Dream (1635)

              Describe the work of Calderon?

              What is the basic story line of Life is a Dream?

 

 

Hispanic-American Theatre

 

17.      Rabinal Achi (Quiche)

              Describe the basic story line of the dance drama.

              What is distinctive about the way this play is written.  Describe the language.

 

18.      The Moors and the Christians

              What story is told in this play from ancient Spain?

              Why did the conquistadors bring this play with them to Mexico? 

 

19.      La Chata Noloesca 1903 - 1979

              Who was Beatriz Perez, and what were her contributions to Chicano Theatre?

                                   

20.      Luis Valdez

              Why did Luis Valdez come to Delano in 1965?

              How did El Teatro Campesino (The Farmworker's Theatre) begin?

              Describe one of the actos of Valdez and how it represents the Teatro style.

             

 

THE THEATRE OF THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE

 

1.         Puritan Opposition to the Theatre

              Why did the Puritans dislike the theatre?

              What actions did Puritans take to oppose theatre in England?

 

2.         Government Regulation of the Theatre         

              Aside from the Master of the Revels, why and how was theatre regulated during Elizabethan times?

              How much did the Queen play a part in the regulation?

             

3.         Master of the Revels 1572                         

              What was the original purpose for this position?

              How did it change during the Elizabethan era?

              What was the Master of the Revels responsible for licensing?                                             

4.         Lord Chamberlain's Men 1594 (King's Men 1603)

              Why were Elizabethan theatre companies required to have "noble" patronage?

              Describe the roles of sharers, hired actors and apprentices in Shakespeare's company.

 

5.         What are some significant contributions by Philip Henslowe to Elizabethan theatre?

              What acting company was he associated with?

              Why did Henslowe's records become important for theatre historians? 

             

 

 

6.         Performance Style

              Was the Elizabethan acting style "presentational" or "realistic"?  Give examples for each.

              How was it affected by the physical theatres?

 

7.         The Public Theatres:

              Why were the public theatres all built outside of London?

              Who built the first public theatre in Elizabethan England? When?  Where?       

              Describe the basic plan of the public theatres.

                                                                         

8.         Johannes de Witt's drawing of the Swan, 1596

              What parts of The Swan did this drawing show?

              Why was this such an important document for centuries?

 

9.         The Globe Theatre (1599, 1613, and 1997)  

              Why was the Globe such an important Elizabethan theatre?

              What events happened on these dates to the Globe Theatre?

              What was the Tiring House?  The Heavens?

 

10.      The Private Theatres

              How were the private theatres different from the public theatres?

              Describe the most significant of the private theatres.

              What were Masques?

 

11.      Where did Jones gain his education on design?

              Describe some of the design work of Inigo Jones.

              What contributions did Inigo Jones make to the private theatres?

             

12.      The University Wits

              Who were some of these gentlemen?

              Why were they called The University Wits?

              How does having so many playwrights from college reflect that the Elizabethan era was the Renaissance in England?

 

13.      Thomas Kyd (1557-1595), The Spanish Tragedy 1587

              Why was The Spanish Tragedy the most popular play of its time?

              What influence did this play have on later Elizabethan plays?

 

14.      Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), Dr. Faustus 1588

              Why was Marlowe the most famous University Wit?

              How did Marlowe develop Elizabethan playwriting?

              What influences did Marlowe have on Shakespeare?

 

15.      Shakespeare's Life

              What may have been some influences from Shakespeare's life experience on his plays?

              How did Shakespeare acquire his eduation? 

              Why did he leave Stratford-upon-Avon to go to London?

 

16.      Shakespeare 's Histories

              How did the Elizabethan history play represent the new focus of the Renaissance?

              What did Shakespeare contribute in his English history cycle?  What elevated these plays above mere history?

              Describe one of Shakespeare's theatrical characters from one of the following plays: Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, Richard III.

 

17.      Shakespeare's Comedies

              What are some of the main features in Shakespeare's comedies that make the plays work successfully?

              Describe one character known as a fool or clown in one of the following plays: Midsummer Night's Dream, Twelfth Night, As You Like It, Taming of the Shrew.

 

18.      Shakespeare's Tragedies

              Shakespeare's tragedies are known for complicated plots composed of several incidents, central characters who stand opposed to the world around them, and themes of revenge, ambition, madness, personal worth, and family dedication.  Point out how one of these distinct qualities is evident in one of the following plays: Romeo & Juliet, Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth.

 

19.      Ben Jonson (1572-1637)

              What happened to Jonson's production of The Isle of Dogs that reveals the intensity of theatre regulation by the Elizabethan authorities? 

              What was his concept of the "comedy of humors"? 

              What were the masques that Jonson and designer Inigo Jones created at court?

 

20.      What happened to the theatre after Shakespeare?

              How did it change?  What kinds of plays were performed?

              How did the relationship with the Puritans evolve in Jacobean times?

              What may have been the reasons for what happened in 1642?