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Deviance

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Created: March 21, 2004
Latest Update: March 21, 2004

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Index of Topics on Site Backup of Deviance and Conformity
By Thom7?
SOURCE: ?
Copyright: Source Copyright ?
Included here under Fair Use Doctrine for teaching purposes.

Sounds like a student's notes. Don't rely on it without checking for accuracy, but it's a good example of how you might put together an overall outline for your exams, in which I don't believe, of course. jeanne

THOM 07:
DEVIANCE AND CONFORMITY

Deviance: Violation of social norms

Conformity: Adherence to social norms

Norms and A Range of Tolerance

Taboos, virtually no tolerance

Mores, very narrow range

Folkways, very wide range

Laws, variable range according to our values

Importance of Time, Place, Situation, and Culture

Time: What is fine in the 90s, was not in the 50s

Place: What “goes” at a rock concert wouldn’t in the classroom

Situation: If a “place” has different uses, the behavior must be situation appropriate.

Culture: When in Rome???

Significance of Actors, Audience, and the Media

Who does it--the double standard in gender, race, and class

Who interprets it--the O. J. case

How the media present it—RED WILSON STEALS CHICKENS!

Differences between “deviance” and related concepts:

The difference between deviance and crime:
Crime is formal--it’s a violation of codified rules.

Distinguishing between diversity and deviance:
Some people eat with chopsticks, so what?

Deviance and Stigma

“Abominations” of the body--too fat, too thin, walk with a limp, scarred in a fire, etc.

Blemishes of “character”--mentally ill, mentally deficient, alcoholic, drug addict, aids sufferers, etc.

“Tribal” Stigma--race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, group affiliation, etc.

MODES OF CONFORMITY AND NON-CONFORMITY

ACCEPTANCE (PRIVATE CONFORMITY)

SIN, FAUX PAS (PRIVATE NON-CONFORMITY)

COMPLIANCE (PUBLIC CONFORMITY)

HERESY, REBELLION (PUBLIC NON-CONFORMITY)

. . .

ACCEPTANCE:PRIVATE CONFORMITY

AGREES WITH THE NORM

BEHAVES ACCORDING TO THE NORM

. . .

SIN, FAUX PAS: NON-WILLFUL DEVIANCE

AGREES WITH THE NORM

BEHAVES IN VIOLATION OF THE NORM

EXAMPLES: MORAL TRANSGRESSION FOLLOWED BY GUILT AND REPENTANCE; SOCIAL BLUNDER

. . .

COMPLIANCE: PUBLIC CONFORMITY

DISAGREES WITH THE NORM

BEHAVES ACCORDING TO THE NORM.

EXAMPLE: RICKS PROFESSOR, WHO SECRETLY WANTS A BEARD, SHAVES.

. . .

HERESY, REBELLION: WILLFUL DEVIANCE

DISAGREES WITH THE NORM

BEHAVES IN VIOLATION OF THE NORM

EXAMPLE: TEENAGER OPENLY ADVOCATES “FREE LOVE” AND DEFIANTLY ACTS ACCORDINGLY

. . .

IN SUMMARY

THINKS RIGHT THINKS RIGHT

ACTS RIGHT ACTS WRONG

(ACCEPTANCE) ( SIN, FAUX PAS)

THINKS WRONG THINKS WRONG

CTS RIGHT ACTS WRONG

(COMPLIANCE) (HERESY, REBELLION)

. . .

NORMAL PATHS OF CHANGE

ACCEPTANCE---- SIN, FAUX PAS

ACCEPTANCE -- SIN, FAUX PAS

COMPLIANCE->HERESY, REBELLION

COMPLIANCE HERESY, REBELLION

. . .

OCCASIONAL PATHS OF CHANGE

ACCEPTANCE HERESY, REBELLION

ACCEPTANCE<-HERESY, REBELLION (PAUL, ALMA JR., WINSTON SMITH)

COMPLIANCE SIN, FAUX PAS

COMPLIANCE<-SIN, FAUX PAS

. . . .

Popular Explanations for Deviance

Deviants are different: --Lombroso, Criminal type; Sheldon’s body types: ectomorph, mesomorph endomorph

The Medical Model: equating deviance with sickness or disease

Blame it on the media--pornography, media violence, heavy metal and rap P. 2

. . .

Sociological Analysis of Deviance and Conformity

Structural Functionalist Perspective:

  1. Reaffirm and reinforce social norms
  2. Promote social solidarity as we unite against the enemy.
  3. Provide a contrast effect and help us define deviance.
  4. Act as a safety valve to prevent even greater deviance.
  5. Lead to innovation and social change.

DURKHEIM’S STUDY OF SUICIDE

EGOISTIC--WEAK GROUP TIES

ALTRUISTIC--SUPER-STRONG GROUP TIES

ANOMIC--LOSS OF DIRECTION IN TIMES OF SOCIAL UPHEAVAL

FATALISTIC-- REACTION TO EXCESSIVE SOCIAL CONTROL; OFTEN COLLECTIVE (CULTS)

EXMPLES OF EACH:

EGOISTIC: AMERICAN TEENAGER KILLS HIMSELF WHEN HIS GIRLFRIEND ENDS THEIR RELATIONSHIP.

ALTRUISTIC: JAPANESE YOUTH TAKES HIS LIFE WHEN HE DISGRACES HIS FAMILY BY FAILING A TEST IN SCHOOL.

EXAMPLES CONTINUED

ANOMIC : A MAN WHOSE HOUSE WAS JUST WASHED AWAY BY A FLOOD CAN’T FACE IT AND KILLS HIMSELF.

FATALISTIC: A COUPLE DECIDES TO “END IT ALL” WHEN THEIR PARENTS VOW TO KEEP THEM FROM MARRYING.

. . .

MERTON’S ANOMIE THEORY

THIS THEORY IS BASED ON PEOPLE’S ACCEPTANCE OF SOCIETY’S GOALS (THINGS SOCIETY TELLS US TO ACHIEVE) AND SOCIETY’S MEANS (HOW SOCIETY WANTS US TO ACHIEVE THEM). USING THE GOAL, MATERIAL WEALTH, AND THE MEANS, HARD WORK, WE HAVE THE FOLLOWING “TYPES”:

CONFORMIST

ACCEPTS AND PERSUES MATERIAL WEALTH

WORKS HARD TO ACHIEVE IT

INNOVATOR

ACCEPTS AND PURSUES MATERIAL WEALTH

DOES NOT WANT TO WORK, SO HE USES ANOTHER MEANS (STEALING, PROVIDING ILLEGAL SERVICES, WHATEVER PAGE 3

RITUALIST

DOES NOT REALLY CARE ABOUT MATERIAL WEALTH.

WORKS HARD ANYWAY OUT OF HABIT OR STRONG WORK ETHIC.

RETREATIST

REJECTS AND DOES NOT PURSUE MATERIAL WEALTH.

REJECTS CONVENTIONAL CAREERS AND JOBS. DROPS OUT OF THE “RAT RACE”.

REBEL

REJECTS BOTH GOALS AND MEANS

OVERTHROWS SOCIETY (IF SUCCESSFUL) AND IMPOSES HIS GOALS AND MEANS ON THE REST OF US.

SEE NOTE ON THE NEXT SLIDE *

. . .

MERTON’S FIVE “TYPES”(IN SUMMARY)

SOCIETY’S GOALS MEANS

CONFORMIST + +

INNOVATOR + -

RITUALIST - +

RETREATIST - -

REBEL - > + - > +

DEVIANT SUBCULTURE THEORY

WE GROW UP ACCEPTING THE NORMS AND VALUES OF A SUBCULTURE, BUT THIS PUTS US IN VIOLATION OF GENERAL SOCIETAL NORMS

CONFLICT THEORY OF DEVIANCE

DEVIANCE ARISES WHEN GROUPS WITH POWER IMPOSE THEIR NORMS AND VALUES ON LESS POWERFUL GROUPS--AGE, RACE, SEX, RELIGION, SOCIAL CLASS, POLITICAL PREFERENCE, SEXUAL PREFERENCE. EXAMPLE: PENALTIES FOR WHITE COLLAR CRIME COMPARED WITH RING-AROUND-THE COLLAR CRIME

PAGE 4

INTERACTIONISM’S CONTRIBUTION

LABELING THEORY

PRIMARY DEVIANCE

SECONDARY DEVIANCE

CASE OF SUZIE AND SALLY

CASE OF TRACY AND CAGNEY

. . .

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

MONKEY SEE, MONKEY DO

BANDURA STUDIES

. . .

DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY

PRIORITY

DURATION

FREQUENCY INTENSITY

. . .

NEUTRALIZATION OF DEVIANCE

DENIAL OF RESPONSIBILITY—BLAME FORCES BEYOND YOUR CONTROL; THE DEVIL MADE ME DO IT, THE DOG ATE THE HOMEWORK, MY PRINTER WOULDN’T PRINT

DENIAL OF INJURY—NO HARM WAS DONE. SURELY THAT BIG COMPANY WON’T MISS A FEW SHOPLIFTED ITEMS.

DENIAL OF THE PERSON’S STANDING AS “VICTIM” (SHE “DESERVED” IT OR “ASKED” FOR IT

CONDEMN THE CONDEMNER (POT CALLS KETTLE BLACK)

A>PPEAL TO HIGHER LOYALTIES (THE END JUSTIFIES THE MEANS)

. . .

Social Control and Deterrence

Social Control: Mechanisms people use to enforce the norms

  1. Voluntary (or internalized) social control--conscience
  2. Informal social control--ridicule or shame

Formal Social Control

Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Types of Crime:

  1. Violent Crime--murder, assault
  2. Property Offenses--burglary, auto theft
  3. Public Order-- “victimless crimes”--drugs, prostitution, gambling

    THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    LAW ENFORCEMENT

    JUDICIARY

    CORRECTIONS

    Looking to the Future

    Deviance and Conformity in the Twenty-First Century

    1. Increasing Control--Der grosse Bruder sieht dich an!
    2. Mass Media
    3. Electronic surveillance
    4. Location monitoring



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