Civic Leadership for the Common Good:
Leadership Development in Appalachian Kentucky

A Report by the
Civic Leadership Working Team
Kentucky Appalachian Commission

June 1996

Published by the Appalachian Center, University of Kentucky


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary

Introduction Civic Leadership and Leadership Development Programs

Current Status of East Kentucky Leadership Development Programs Strengths, Weaknesses and Gaps
Recommendations

Implementation

Appendix A

Appendix B


Executive Summary

Strong endorsements of the need for civic leadership development in Eastern Kentucky come from Communities of Hope, the report of the Kentucky Appalachian Task Force; from the Appalachian Regional Commission's new strategic plan; and from Governor Paul Patton. In this context, the Kentucky Appalachian Commission's Civic Leadership Working Team has assessed the current status of civic leadership development efforts in Eastern Kentucky and identified ways to strengthen opportunities for civic leadership in the region.

Civic leadership is leadership for the common good. The focus is on empowering others and increasing participation in the life of the community in order to create a better future for all. The levels of involvement in civic leadership are participation, group leadership, and community leadership. Leadership development programs include entry level programs, which help to get people involved who have not previously been involved in civic life; skill building programs, which help participants become group leaders and also help group leaders become community leaders; and trainer training programs which help those who have achieved some mastery of leadership skills learn how to impart those skills to others.

Organizations that help Eastern Kentuckians to develop civic leadership fall into two general categories: programs specifically dedicated to civic leadership development, and organizations in which citizens can develop leadership skills as part of a larger program. There are opportunities for leadership development at some level in every community, but many of these opportunities are available only in limited geographic areas and are not accessible to all population groups in the community.

In the past decade, leadership development programs have had a remarkable impact on Appalachian Kentucky. The impact is evident in projects accomplished, in the rising level of civic capacity and in the budding reemergence of a culture of participation. Gaps in leadership development opportunities include: few avenues for developing leadership readiness; institutional barriers to full utilization of new, emerging leaders; a lack of leadership training for public officials; a scarcity of training for trainers; instability of funding for leadership development; and insufficient coordination among programs and organizations offering leadership training.

The Civic Leadership Working Team recommends that the Kentucky Appalachian Commission create The Leadership East Kentucky Initiative, a consortium of programs committed to the development of civic leadership in Appalachian Kentucky.

The Leadership East Kentucky Initiative will:

As a consortium of leadership programs, the Leadership East Kentucky Initiative will strengthen the network among these programs and promote the concept and the practice of civic leadership for the common good. The Initiative will also develop a model for mutual support among local leadership development efforts; provide technical assistance to organizations seeking to incorporate leadership development into their programs; and explore and develop funding resources to support existing and new leadership development programs on an ongoing basis.


Introduction

This report is a product of the Civic Leadership Working Team of the Kentucky Appalachian Commission. It is an extension of work begun in 1993 with the creation of the Kentucky Appalachian Task Force. In 1994, the Task Force published its final report as Communities of Hope: Preparing for the Future in Appalachian Kentucky. Throughout Communities of Hope, the importance of citizen involvement in decision making and the development of the potential of people are key themes. The Task Force found that "There is a clear need in Appalachian Kentucky to expand education concerning civic and development processes, including the expansion of civic leadership training programs for citizens and elected officials alike."

In October 1995, Governor Brereton Jones implemented one of the recommendations contained in Communities of Hope by creating the Kentucky Appalachian Commission "for the purpose of developing a comprehensive plan for the Appalachian Region of Kentucky in the context of development planning for the commonwealth as a whole, as well as in the context of Appalachian Regional Commission funding and procedures." The Executive Order that created the Kentucky Appalachian Commission gave the Commission the authority to create multidisciplinary working teams. These ad hoc committees concentrate on an issue affecting several program areas and bring together leading authorities on that issue from state government, higher education, private businesses, area development districts, non-profit organizations, citizens groups and other organizations. The Civic Leadership Working Team, one of four recommended by Communities of Hope, is one of these teams. In early 1996, the Appalachian Regional Commission contributed a piece to the charge of the Civic Leadership Working Team when it published its strategic plan, Setting a Regional Agenda. Goal 3 of this plan is that "The people and organizations of Appalachia will have the vision and capacity to mobilize and work together for sustained economic progress and improvement of their communities." Under this goal, the first objective is that within the next decade the number of Appalachians participating in leadership development programs will double in each state.

In this context, the Civic Leadership Working Team, established in February 1996, gathered to assess the current status of civic leadership development efforts in Eastern Kentucky and to identify ways to strengthen opportunities for civic leadership in the region. The Working Team's membership consisted of staff and participants in leadership development programs serving Eastern Kentucky. A list of the individuals who participated in meetings leading to this report is attached as Appendix A. The names of those who served on the writing team are starred.

The Working Team began by discussing values that should be reflected in leadership development programs and found large areas of agreement. Our understanding of civic leadership as well as a description of levels of leadership and types of leadership programs are explained in Section II: Civic Leadership and Leadership Development Programs.

We then looked at the leadership programs that currently serve the region. We found that in addition to some excellent, fairly new programs that work directly to develop civic leadership, many other organizations provide leadership development opportunities in the course of their work. We also discovered a general lack of programs for some specific subgroups within the region. Section III: Current Status of East Kentucky Leadership Development Programs explains our findings.

Based on these findings and informed by the collective experience of its members, the Working Team then reflected on the overall situation of leadership development in Appalachian Kentucky. The result of this reflection appears in Section IV: Strengths, Weaknesses and Gaps.Finally, the Working Team developed recommendations. We propose the formation of a Leadership East Kentucky Initiative that will draw together the strengths of existing programs to carry out specific projects. Details appear in Section V: Recommendations.

At the Spring 1996 meeting of the Kentucky Appalachian Advisory Council, Governor Paul Patton announced his support for the creation of a new leadership development initiative in Eastern Kentucky. This endorsement of the importance of leadership development was enthusiastically received by the Civic Leadership Working Team. Our final work was done in high hopes that Governor Patton as well as the Kentucky Appalachian Commission will support and implement the Working Team's recommendations for building civic leadership in Eastern Kentucky.


Civic Leadership and Leadership Development Programs

Concept of Leadership

Leadership - what is it? Many definitions have been offered, cultural stereotypes abound, numerous programs focus on leadership development, but the question remains. In fact, leadership is many different things to different people in different circumstances. When we think of leadership, we often think first of famous individuals. We may think of great political leaders: Washington, Churchill, Roosevelt. We may think of the leaders of social movements: Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Caesar Chavez. We may think of spiritual leaders: Jesus, Mohammed, Mother Theresa. Do we also include in our definition some of the infamous leaders such as Hitler, Stalin, or David Koresh? Obviously, leadership is not always or automatically good in and of itself. We are quickly reminded of the notion that power corrupts and that absolute power corrupts absolutely.

An exploration of leadership also quickly takes us beyond the lists of the famous when we consider the examples of leadership in our own lives: family members, friends, teachers, ministers, and others who by their lives and examples have influenced and led us in various ways. When we look at leadership in communities we see many leaders who may never become famous but whose leadership is essential to the life of the community. We begin to see leaders all around us.

It is important to make a distinction between individual-oriented leadership and civic-oriented leadership. Traditional ideas of individual leadership often center on attributes such as charisma, influence and position. Strong individual leaders wield power, maintain control and motivate followers to accomplish their purpose. Such purpose may or may not serve the common good.

Civic leadership requires strong and competent individuals as well, but the overall intent is to empower others and increase participation in the life of the community and the full range of democratic processes in order to create a better future for all. The proper exercise of civic leadership will seek to eliminate institutional injustice and systemic barriers to citizen involvement and will at times challenge excesses of individual-oriented leadership if position is abused, power is not shared, and the common good is not served. In the civic context, leadership may be seen as a collection of skills and actions that encourage broadbased participation, facilitate consensus building, distribute shared responsibility, develop new leaders and enable groups to work effectively to achieve their shared goals. Thus, leadership development consists of strengthening skills in individuals and providing groups with techniques and opportunities for working together.

This approach implies that leaders are made, not born, and that whatever natural talents one may have, these can be enhanced and additional skills can be learned. Further, the individual does not have to possess the full range of leadership skills in order to play a leadership role on a team. The problem solver need not be a gifted public speaker if someone else can fulfill that role. The visionary does not have to excel at detailed follow through and the meticulous recordkeeper need not be a visionary, if they can work together. All are leaders by virtue of the skills and commitment they bring to the team effort.

Levels of Involvement

To better understand how leadership development programs can serve the needs of communities, we can begin by considering the different levels of involvement in leadership roles. Three levels are identified here.

The first level is participation. Being a follower might seem at first blush to be the opposite of being a leader. However, even a cursory examination of the level of participation in civic life (low voter turnout, poor attendance at public meetings, declining organizational membership) tells us that the opposite of civic leadership is nonparticipation. Participation is the entry point to taking on more leadership responsibility.

The second level is group leadership, taking a leadership role within the group or groups in which a person participates. While this may involve a formal position such as being president of an organization it also includes a variety of nonofficial leadership activities such as bringing new ideas to the group, contacting others between meetings, suggesting processes for the group's work, or speaking on behalf of the group.

The third level is community leadership. This level might typically be seen in terms of position, such as election to political office. In practice, however, community leadership is more often carried out by informal leaders. These may be group leaders whose sphere of activity encompasses multiple groups or activities. In any case, position is no guarantee that an individual possesses the skills needed to be effective at this level. These skills include communication, networking, facilitating public discourse, brokering collaborative efforts, and conflict resolution. Leaders who possess these skills need not hold public office. In fact they may never hold an official position, but they will consistently play a crucial role in the life of their communities.

Types of Programs

The purpose of leadership programs, in general, is either to enhance individuals' performance at their current level of involvement or to help them make a transition to the next level of involve-ment. This suggests a framework for identifying different types of leadership development programs, building on the three levels of involvement identified above.

Leadership Values

Leadership development programs must take responsibility for the quality of leaders being developed, not only in terms of skills, but in terms of values. What is the difference between Gandhi and Hitler, or Mother Theresa and David Koresh? All might be considered effective leaders in some sense. Leadership programs should seek to develop leaders who are not merely capable, but who are also accountable to the constituencies they serve; ethical in their practices; grounded in their communities; open to other points of view; respectful of racial, cultural, gender, economic or other kinds of diversity; committed to developing others as leaders; willing to share power, responsibility and authority; and dedicated to working for the common good rather than for personal gain.


Current Status of East Kentucky Leadership Development Programs

Opportunities to develop civic leadership in Appalachian Kentucky vary according to several factors: population segments (age, economic status, gender, etc.); the organizations and programs that serve particular geographic areas; and the level of leadership at which an individual is ready to grow (participation, group, or community).

Organizations that help Eastern Kentuckians develop civic leadership fall into two general categories: those that specifically focus on equipping people with leadership skills and those

where acquiring such skills is a part of a larger program. Within the second category, there are organizations which include leadership development as a deliberate part of the program, and organizations in which leadership development can happen in the course of participation.

Leadership Development Programs

There are several organizations in Eastern Kentucky which are specifically dedicated to civic leadership development. The most prominent are the Brushy Fork Institute, the Commonwealth Fellowship Program, East Kentucky Women in Leadership, Morehead State University's Student Leadership Development Program, and community leadership programs in places like Ashland, Mt. Sterling, Winchester, Madison County, and the TriCounty program of Laurel, Knox, and Whitley counties. Leadership Kentucky and the Kentucky Women's Leadership Network are statewide programs which include Eastern Kentuckians among their participants. All these programs involve adults; some also include youth. They all seek to include participants who represent social, economic, educational, gender and racial diversity in a community. The geographic reach of these programs varies. Brushy Fork's mission encompasses Appalachian regions in West Virginia, Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and concentrates on individual counties in each state. The community leadership programs serve particular communities while the Commonwealth Fellowship Program ranges the whole of Appalachian Kentucky.

The Commonwealth Fellowship Program at the University of Kentucky and the Brushy Fork Institute at Berea College concentrate on entry level and skill building programs for diverse populations and community based organizations. The Brushy Fork Institute offers a six-month program in which participants from selected counties in four states explore leadership and planning skills, articulate a vision for their community, and implement a six-month community improvement project that is based on their vision. Participants are recruited to include a broad cross section of the selected communities. They include bankers and blue-collar workers, elected officials and grassroots volunteers. They range in age from high school students to senior citizens. The mix also involves recognized community leaders, the quiet leaders who have been active in their communities without great visibility, newly emerging leaders, or others who might not fit stereotypical leadership profiles. This mixture allows for a broad range of perspectives to be brought to bear on understanding the needs of the community. Brushy Fork also provides services to other organizations on a contract basis, such as workshop design, facilitation, organization development, and strategic planning. Since 1988, 566 individuals, 204 of them from Eastern Kentucky, have participated in Brushy Fork's sixmonth program. Through its other services, Brushy Fork has worked with an additional 2700 people.

The Commonwealth Fellowship Program is designed to support, inspire, and nurture emerging leaders in Eastern Kentucky. Modeled in part on the Kellogg National Fellowship, the program for the first three classes of Commonwealth Fellows included intensive group seminars, which focused on skills development and exploration of key issues related to community and regional development, and individualized learning plans in which skills and visions could be specifically applied and tested. A significant feature of the program was to encourage networking and involving other community members in a range of projects that were meaningful to their communities. Commonwealth Fellows were expected to participate in public policy discussions through a process called Community Issues Gatherings. Like Brushy Fork, people from all social, economic, and educational backgrounds with a commitment to community and place participated in the first classes of Fellows. All together, 100 individuals have become Commonwealth Fellows.

The present class of Commonwealth Fellows is providing Area Development Districts (ADD) and other community-based organizations with the training and resources to foster citizenship and leadership development. Twenty-four Fellows were selected to receive training in designing and implementing their own leadership development programs and facilitating Community Issues Gatherings. This is an effort to give local agencies the capacity to offer smallerscale leadership programs within their own districts on an ongoing basis. Sixty-five young people are participating in youth leadership projects started by the current class.

The East Kentucky Women in Leadership program is just forming. It will provide opportunities for women to network, workshops to enhance leadership skills, and a mentoring program for support to other women.

Morehead State University sponsors a student leadership development program. High academic achieving students learn leadership concepts and skills and participants are given the opportunity to apply these skills to real life situations in their home communities. In 1997, a non-traditional student element will be added.

Community leadership programs in Eastern Kentucky, many of which are patterned after Leadership Kentucky, identify and recruit regional and local leaders to further develop their leadership skills. Community leadership programs offer a year-long educational program which includes a balanced presentation of information on local resources combined with experiential opportunities. These programs encourage networking and the building of alliances to achieve community goals.

In addition to these extended programs, community leaders in Eastern Kentucky have an opportunity to become better informed about issues affecting the region through the East Kentucky Leadership Conference. Sponsored by the East Kentucky Leadership Foundation, this annual two-day conference gives participants opportunities to network with other citizens in the region and to discuss, define, and explore solutions to issues currently affecting Eastern Kentucky. It is open to all.

Leadership Development Within Organizations

The largest category of organizations providing avenues for leadership experience in Appalachian Kentucky are those in which participants have opportunities to gain skills through participation. Within this category, some organizations offer entry level opportunities through participation while others provide a skill building component. In the programs that 4H offers, for instance, youth in elementary, middle and high schools gain entry level experience by volunteering in various competitions and community projects. They can also learn some group leadership skills through presiding at meetings and acquiring communication skills through demonstration programs and speech contests. The same can be said for people who participate in programs operated by the New Opportunity School for Women, Kentucky Local Governance Project chapters, and Kentuckians For The Commonwealth, each of which includes a leadership component as part of a broader program.

Many organizations provide participation and leadership development opportunities to particular segments of the population. For youth, instances to learn leadership are included in school programs like honor societies, athletics, service-learning projects, student government, Future Farmer and Future Homemakers of America and in community organizations like Scouting, church youth groups, and Boys and Girls State. For adults there are opportunities in organizations such as civic clubs (Lions, Kiwanis, Rotary), churches, volunteer fire departments and auxiliaries, women's clubs, community colleges, GED and literacy programs, environmental education programs, Homemakers, professional associations, schoolbased decision making councils, Family Resource/Youth Service Centers, craft coops, settlement schools, and Habitat for Humanity. While many of these organizations are in theory open to anyone, in practice they tend to attract limited segments of the community (business people and professionals for civic clubs, for example) and thus the opportunities they provide for leadership development are limited to population groups they attract. Some groups, particularly low income people and minorities, do not have many community organizations through which they can develop their civic leadership capacity.

Opportunities at Three Leadership Levels

We can summarize the current status of civic leadership development opportunities in Eastern Kentucky by looking at each of the three levels of civic leadership described in Section III: participation, group leadership and community leadership.

Despite opportunities in every community at the participation level, there are still many people for whom avenues for participation are not clear or accessible. There are also many organizations which would welcome more and broader participation but do not know how to achieve it.

Virtually all community organizations provide opportunities for experience at the group leadership level. Some also provide specific opportunities for group level skills development; others could offer their members more development opportunities by being more intentional about training and supporting people who take on group leadership roles.

Community level leadership is addressed by programs designed specifically for leadership development. However, because of limited resources these programs do not reach everyone who could benefit from training at this level; also because of limited resources, they do not offer programs tailored to many groups who could use specially designed programs. Elected officials, for example, need skills such as facilitating public discourse and conflict resolution which come into play at the community leadership level, but their opportunities to develop these skills are limited.


Strengths, Weaknesses and Gaps

Areas of Impact

The state of civic leadership in Eastern Kentucky today is a very different scenario than it was as recently as the start of this decade. Hundreds of citizens have taken part in one or more leadership programs and organizations. We now find "second generation" leadership training as participants create new venues for neighbors to acquire and practice the skills and techniques of civic participation and community building. Civic leadership development in Kentucky is no longer in its infancy.

The impact of these efforts is evident in at least three areas: in the projects accomplished, in the rising level of civic capacity, and in the budding reemergence of a culture of participation.

As notable as these achievements are, much more remains to be done. Serious gaps and weaknesses exist in the array of leadership development opportunities and where gaps remain, so remain the long-standing problems that compromise the strength of our Commonwealth. We need not look very hard or far to find examples:

Six Primary Obstacles

What pieces are missing in our existing configuration of civic leadership development opportunities? The Working Team identified six gaps and weaknesses as most critical.

Few avenues for developing leadership readiness.

To take part in even an entry level leadership program requires some degree of readiness; in most instances a person must be willing and able to: stay overnight away from home, feel selfconfident enough to speak in a group, work with strangers, and act on an assumption that a group of people working together can make a difference. It is possible for a person to be taking part in civic life by attending meetings, say meetings of parents of Girl Scouts, for example, and yet not be ready for entry level leadership training. While some organizations are equipped to assist people with partial readiness to gain and move beyond readiness into a continuum of leadership training, we see enormous unmet needs in this area.

Institutional barriers to full utilization of new, emerging leaders.

It is not enough to train citizen leaders. Government, institutions and the numerous civic and special interest organizations must be made more responsive to the perspectives, knowledge and concerns of new citizen leaders. When leaders are trained, but public institutions and private organizations are not receptive to their participation, the net result is an increase in empowered but frustrated and disillusioned would be participants, rather than an infusion of new blood for vital democratic processes.

One barrier is the traditional notion of a leader as the lone knight on a white charger; as discussed earlier, the concept of civic leadership better lends itself to service for the common good. Governmental and organizational structures, with decisionmaking power concentrated in the hands of a few, are also barriers to shared leadership. Poor attitudes on the part of some civic servants and elected officials present additional obstacles; too often citizens who ask questions are viewed as challenging authority, and disagreeing in public is seen as being antagonistic rather than a constructive contribution to a process of striving for common agreement.

A lack of leadership training for public officials.

While acquiring the attitudes and skills necessary for working in partnership with those they serve is essential for good political leadership, we find a great void in training options for elected and appointed officials. There are programs to give elected leaders information necessary for the position training in their statutory authority, budget preparation, and specifics such as jail standards, but we could not identify any programs to assist public officials in building and practicing democratic arts or learning about new concepts of leadership. We did not find programs for either information or skills training for people appointed to government boards or committees.

A scarcity of training for trainers.

At present, very few avenues exist for training new trainers and for active trainers to enhance their skills. As civic leadership in Kentucky evolves and matures the demand for additional trainers will continue to rise and current practitioners will need expanded skills. In light of the Appalachian Regional Commission's goal of doubling the number of participants in leadership development programs within the next decade, this demand becomes even more critical. The greater our supply of effective trainers of diverse backgrounds, the more people we will be able to serve with leadership development opportunities.

Instability of funding for leadership development.

For the most part, leadership development is grantfunded and consequently does not have long term stability. Whether through grants from large foundations or with designated dollars from state and ARC funds, much of Kentucky's leadership training activity is unsustainably dependent on year to year appropriations and changing trends within the philanthropic and political world. Some options being explored in neighboring states are not yet on the table in Kentucky, such as community foundations or utility industry support for ongoing programs.

Insufficient coordination among programs and organizations offering leadership training.

Relationships among programs and organizations that offer leadership training in Kentucky are friendly and cooperative. On an informal basis, program staff cross paths in the course of their work and call on each other to assist with particular training programs in areas of expertise. On the other hand, there is much greater potential for efficiency and effectiveness through collaboration. Recent efforts such as the Natural Bridge Summit, the Leadership Roundtable at Hazard Community College, and even this Civic Leadership Working Team have increased our already high awareness of the need for such coordination. Through collaboration and informationsharing we could increase the impact of our collective efforts.

Each of these six deficiencies can be addressed. The next section contains our recommendations for doing so.


Recommendations

The Civic Leadership Working Team recommends that the Kentucky Appalachian Commission create The Leadership East Kentucky Initiative, a consortium of programs committed to the development of civic leadership in Appalachian Kentucky.

The Leadership East Kentucky Initiative will:

As a consortium of leadership programs, the Leadership East Kentucky Initiative will strengthen the network among these programs and promote the concept and the practice of civic leadership for the common good. The Initiative will also develop a model for mutual support among local leadership development efforts; provide technical assistance to organizations seeking to incorporate leadership development into their programs; and explore and develop funding resources to support existing and new leadership development programs on an ongoing basis.


Implementation

The primary recommendation of the Civic Leadership Working Team is the creation of the Leadership East Kentucky Initiative, a consortium of programs committed to the development of civic leadership in Appalachian Kentucky. The recommendation is that this consortium undertake a variety of programs, including the creation of a civic leadership development program for local elected and appointed officials, the East Kentucky Academy for Youth Leadership, and a program to train leadership development program designers and facilitators.

  1. To implement this recommendation, the Working Team recommends that:The Kentucky Appalachian Commission instruct the Civic Leadership Working Team to reconstitute itself into The Leadership East Kentucky Initiative. This will involve adding members to include more non-professionals in the field of leadership development as well as more members of potential partner organizations. Most active members of the Working Team will probably continue as it becomes the consortium, but some may not.
  2. The Leadership East Kentucky Initiative, staffed by the Commission's new Hazard office and with opportunities for input from members of the Kentucky Appalachian Commission, develop Requests for Proposals for programs, including three described in the Recommendations section of Civic Leadership for the Common Good:

    Create a civic leadership development program for local elected and appointed officials.

    Create the East Kentucky Academy for Youth Leadership.

    Provide training for the trainers.

    The Commission may wish to instruct the Leadership East Kentucky Iniative to develop Requests for Proposals in additional program areas.
  3. The Leadership East Kentucky Initiative present the Request for Proposals to the Kentucky Appalachian Commission for approval and/or recommendation to the Governor, depending on the Commission's role in funding. Among the potential sources that could be used to fund the RFPs are the Appalachian Regional Commission Civic Leadership Initiative Year 2 funds and state appropriations.

    Among the potential resources that could be used to fund the RFPs are the Appalachian Regional Commission Civic Leadership Initiative Year 2 funds and state appropriations.
  4. The Leadership East Kentucky Initiative participate in the review of proposals submitted in response to Requests for Proposals it developed.


This material was produced with assistance of the Appalachian Center of the University of Kentucky. Funds for the work came from the Appalachian Regional Commission.


Appendix A

Civic Leadership Working Team Members

These individuals have participated in meetings of the CLWT.
* Indicates members of the writing team

Ike Adams
Christian Appalachian Project
322 Crab Orchard Road
Lancaster, KY 40444

Daniel H. Barrett
Owsley Co. Action Team
PO Box 181
Booneville, KY 41314

Dwight Billings
Sociology Dept, UK
1577 Patterson Off. Tower
Lexington, KY 40506

Lance Brunner
UK Appalachian Center
624 Maxwelton Court
Lexington, KY 40506-0347

Betsie A. Carroll
Big Sandy ADD
100 Resource Drive
Prestonsburg, KY 41653

Mike Denney
Family Resource/Youth Service Ctrs
529 Masters St.
Corbin, KY 40447

Ron Eller
UK Appalachian Center
624 Maxwelton Court
Lexington, KY 40506-0347

Linda Gayheart
Gayheart Associates
PO Box 105
100 Foxrun Ridge
Hindman, KY 41822

James Goode
UK Appalachian Center
110 Maxwelton Ct.
Lexington, KY 40506-0347

Paul E. Hall
Kentucky River ADD
381 Perry Co. Park Road
Hazard, KY 41701

Shirley Hamilton
Continuing Education
Morehead State University
Morehead, KY 40351

Peggy Hancock
Christian Appalachian Project
Camp Andrew Jackson
McKee, KY 40447

*Jerry Hardt
Office of the Judge Exec. Magoffin Co.
PO Box 697
Salyersville, KY 41465

*Peter Hille
Brushy Fork Institute
CPO 35, Berea College
Berea, KY 40404

*Carol Lamm, Co-Chair
MACED
433 Chestnut Street
Berea, KY 40403

Judy Lewis
Hazard Community College
Rural Community Col. Initiative
Hazard, KY 41701

Betty Jo McKinney
Region 6 Service Center
RR 1, Box 249
Brodhead, KY 40409

Mike Powers
Morehead United Methodist Church
233 W. Main, PO Box 328
Morehead, KY 40351

*Lisa Lewis Raymer
Lewis Raymer Consulting
417 Center Street
Berea, KY 40403

*Janet Ratliff, Co-Chair
Morehead State University
UPO Box 574
Morehead, KY 40351

Mike Score
UK Co-op Extenstion Service
320 Agr. Eng. Bldg.
Lexington, KY 40546

Jane B. Stephenson
New Opportunity School
CPO 2276, Berea College
Berea, KY 40404

*Glen Taul
UK Appalachian Center
624 Maxwelton Court
Lexington, KY 40506-0347

Peg Taylor
McCreary Co. Campus
Somerset Community College
PO Box 398
Whitley City, KY 42653

Barry Tonning
GREEN/Gateway Health Dept.
PO Box 555
Owingsville, KY 40360

Sydney Travis
Buffalo Trace ADD
327 W. Second Street
Maysville, KY 41056

Bert Uschold
Christian Appalachian Project
Camp Andrew Jackson
McKee, KY 40447

Lowell Wagner
Jackson Co. Co-op Ext. Ser.
PO Box 188
McKee, KY 40447

Denise Wainscott
Kentucky Communities Economic Opportunities Council
PO Box 490
Barbourville, KY 40906

Angie Woodward
Leadership Kentucky
P. O. Box 1172
Frankfort, KY 40602

Other individuals who were invited but were unable to participate.

Gene Becker
Barren River ADD
177 Graham Avenue
Bowling Green , KY 42102

Delzinna Belcher
Harlan Co. Judge/Executive
P. O. Box 956
Harlan, KY 40831

Rusty Chevront
Senator Ford’s Office
343 Waller Ave., Suite 204
Lexington, KY 40504

Betsy Curry
KY Women’s Leadership Network
251 West 2nd Street
Lexington, KY 40507

Virginia Fox
Kentucky Educational Television
600 Cooper Drive
Lexington, KY 40502

William Hacker, MD
Appalachian Regional Healthcare
P. O. Box 8086
Lexington, KY 40533

Emily Jones Hudson
Perry Co. Black Mtn. Imp.
887 Oakhurst Ave.
Hazard, KY 41701

Faye King
Stanton Elementary School
P. O. Box 367
Stanton, KY 40380

Jerry Rickett
KY Highlands Investment
P. O. Box 1738
London, KY 40743

Bill Vice
Ashland Community College
1400 College Drive
Ashland, KY 41101

Ruth Webb
P. O. Box 890
Winchester, KY 40392


Appendix B

Additional editorial and word processing assistance was provided by the following:

Michael Harford
Professor of Management
UPO 1014
Morehead State University
Morehead, KY 40351

Penny Grier
Academic Departmental Specialist
UPO 1326
Morehead State University
Morehead, KY 40351

Carolyn Hensley
Administrative Secretary
UPO 1295
Morehead State University
Morehead, KY 40351

Peggy Breeze
Secretary
UPO 844
Morehead State University
Morehead, KY 40351

Marty Newell
Appalachian Center
University of Kentucky
624 Maxwelton Court
Lexington, KY 40506-0347


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