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Statistics Preparations
Week 1: Week of August 25, 2003

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Minimal Requirements in Statistics:
First and Second Weeks

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Created: July 29, 2003
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Index of Topics on Site Soc. 220-01: Introduction to Statistics: Week 1
Preparations for Class and Internet Discussions
For purposes of grading we provide the readings and exercises listed here. There will be no "testing." That means that you will not have to live in anxious anticipation of what we will ask and how much you will have to know. Instead, we will provide weekly discussion questions, lectures, essays, and concepts we feel that you should know as a result of having taken this course. You will assure us of that learning and receive your grade for the questions and concepts about which you choose to write and talk with us. In addition you will find detailed explanations and examples on our grading policies in the first week's reading.

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Week 1: Week of August 25, 2003
Adademic Assessment of Learning: The Technical Term for Grading Policy

  • Topic: Grades are required by the college. The following readings will explain our grading policy. These readings will substitute for textual readings this first week.

  • Preparatory Readings on Grading Policy:
    • Academic Assessment in Credited Course Learning What Susan calls the 5 C's, or qualities we look for in grading. Please don't ask how much is enough, when it's good enough for an A, and such. No one can tell you when a term paper is long enough, when it is an A, or any such nonsense. You're not working for a grade. You're working to learn. And this file will give you extremely concrete details on how to do that. And you don't usually know if you got an A on a term paper until you get it back. We think our system gives you much more detailed and accurate feedback. Use it.
    • Maintatining Consistency in Academic Accountability An explanation of consistency as "discipline," and how to maintain it as a measure of your learning.
    • Cutting to the Chase: Twenty-Five Words or Less and Paper Clips Knowing what to write, rembering what you learned, and making sure your teacher knows.
    • Discovering Your Identity in Learning This essay covers a very specific example of how we measure our learning, particularly when that learning is latent. Like you recognize a word, but you can't remember what it means. And we tell you how to record that with us as learning.
    • Authentication of Knowledge as Interdependent Forms to Guide Us Through Interactive Measures. articularly at the latent stage of learning, it's hard to tell someone what you've learned. We focus on that with a vocabulary learning example in Discovering Your Identity in Learning. In this file we try to offer numerous examples that will help you identify learning in the latent stage. Link created June 29, 1999. Updated July 28, 2003.
    • Measuring Learning without The Learner A brief essay on how we do this to children when we misperceive so dreadfully their creative learning. To share with your kids and friends.

      More Advanced Theoretical Background for our Grading Policy:

    • The Aesthetics of Answerability Bakhtin's theory that every utterance by a Person may be answered by an Other, and that the exchange of utterance and answer will interdependently alter each of them, creating an aesthetic product in community, which community will be more enlightened by the illocutionary exchange.
    • Finding Ethical Ways Around Intellectual Property that Poses Barriers to Learning Discovering ways around the problem that everything is available in books in libraries you can't get to, and using better search techniques to do it. There's a lot available on the Internet now. The state and the academy have a legal interest in your learning, even though they haven't recognized it well since Frederick Jackson Turner. For more on this look at Normative Discourse, particularly what Webber has to say about the formation of aboriginal rights. Lecture and discussion questions on that file not yet finished. August 11, 2003. Nag me. jeanne
    • Why jeanne says don't just answer the questions. Important that you see how our work is answerable and how that relates to aesthetics and how that relates to the creative merging of self and Other, both as individuals and as members of the academic system. Authority assumes the right to answer in one direction only.
    • Keep Your Eye on the Ball Update of a piece written by a former student, recognizing that a normative approach to theory is not always the most fruitful. The aesthetic process is often the one we need.
    • Playing with Habermas The fifteen minute study period.

  • Lecture: Time Management for Study in a World Without Discretionary Time

  • Lecture: Beginning SPSS

      Sample Photo Essays that Meet Requirements of Required Exercise to Show and Tell:

    • The cats who awaited us when we came home Used my own photos. Didn't really tell you very much about King Tut and Cleopatra. I could have done that verbally in class. You would have learned that I like cats and photo-taking. And since I doctored the last photo, you might have discovered I'm an artist.
    • China Gallery: Guelin Uses mixture of a newspaper photo, painting from gallery and one of my own paintings. Would give you a sense of my travel in China. A start on my identity as a learner. This sample goes beyond what I would expect for just satisfying a show and tell activity in class.
    • China Gallery: Guelin at Seven Stars Park Uses four of my photos. Still tells you something of my travels in China, and my interest in photo taking. Postcards woud do, though. Notice that that I'm trying to get you to tell us about some place you've been or somewhere you really want to go, or something you've done or would really like to do.
    • Blogs and Moblogs Goes a little beyond photo essays, and shows a different interest in the internet. Might identify me as someone you could ask questions of. None of the work included is mine.

    What all these examples do is provide a visual stimulus that you can hold on to, in case talking to a class group makes you nervous. You get to let the photo, or the drawing, or the marbles you collect, or whatever, provide a distraction. At the same time you are sharing something very specific, that we are likely to remember. We can connect what you share to our own lives. And we also connect what we are discovering to your name. That means we're all more likely to remember your name. And in that, we have all begun the aesthetic process of creating a learning community.

    One valid question is "What on earth does this have to do with the topic of this course?" A lot. Most of it sociological. We are going to learn in this course together, as a community of learners. To the extent that we use our time together as a community, helping one another, respecting the different perspectives we each bring, listening to what each other have to say, we enrich our lives with other people and our learning with the bits that each of us can add. To do that we must see each other as real humans. We are creating our own social context in which our learning will take place. That empowers and enriches us, and should allow us to learn more effectively.

  • Concepts:

  • Discussion Questions:

    1. What role does the aesthetics of answerability play in the grading policy for this statistics?

      Consider that monologic non-answerability would leave you without an interdependent role in the measurement of your grade. That objectifies you. If I ask a question to which I want only a specified acceptable answer, I leave you no room to play with that question, to ponder it, to follow a road not yet taken in wondering about it. (Robert Frost, The road not taken . . . )

      Especially in a field which is largely unknown to many of you and scary to most of you, some concepts will come to you more easily than others. We would still like you to choose a representative array of concepts for your measurement of learning, but point out to us which ones present more difficulty, then we can help you with those, and your fears should melt away.

    2. Do the five C's offer you an opportunity to count efforts towards your learning that have not been counted before? How do you feel about that?

      Consider:Academic Assessment in Credited Course Learning Do you figure your chances for a good grade are better when you are offered a variety of different kinds of measures or when you're offered just one measure, like a test?

    3. How do you feel about being told that you have to be creative to get an A? How different from that is any traditional grading system?

      Consider the originally intended concept of grading, that an A was exceptional work. This is often the explanation that professors give for limiting the number of A's they give. Consider also the routinization of grading in which an A is simply the top of a grading curve, where those who get the highest scores, however they are calculated, get the A's, few or many. How would an A be affected by a class group that was pretty mediocre? By a class group that was outstanding? There are advantages to routinization. But there are major disadvantages. Routinization tends to inhibit creativity.

    4. Why is computer literacy essential for effective work in this course? How do you acquire that literacy?

      Because all the calculations are done on the computer.

      Computer literacy is essential in keeping with the university's recognition of the computer as a valuable tool for the dissemination of information. You must be able to access the Statistical Program for the Social Sciences, our lectures, preparatory readings, discussion questions, and announcements. Having them available on the computer means that we lose minimal time to such dissemination of basic information in class, so that our time in class together becomes discretionary time for us to spend in more meaningful and learningful discussions.

      You acquire such literacy early in the course through directions given specifically to guide you, and help from our computer labs. If you are having trouble, you need to see jeanne or Susan or Pat within the first couple of weeks to resolve that problem. If you do not have a computer, the university provides labs in which you can access the site. You will need to take that extra access time into account as you plan your study time. I have chosen a text that is so thorought that you can conceivably study without being in front of the computer. For some of you, I think that may be essential. Take the book to a quiet space, read it, think about it. Then take it to the computer, and walk trough the process with the book.

      Don't let this task go. It's not hard. It's doable. But if you fall too far behind, it will look harder.

    5. Why no tests?

      In addition to other perfectly good reasons, most of you are scared to death of mathematics for all the wrong reasons. The course is designed to dispel some of that fear, and to give you a great deal of latitude in providing evidence of your learning.

  • Some Recommended Activities for Academic Assessment:

    1. Show and Tell: Bring a photo or a picture or whatever to the first or second class and share its story with us. A picture of your dog, your cat, your mother-in-law. A newspaper or magazine picture that tells us something about you: maybe where you wish you could go, what you would do there, etc. This is called answerable communication.

    2. Share Your Skills: Help someone who's having trouble with the computer. Just sit with them for a few minutes and let them access the site and practice moving around it. Offer to meet them for coffee or a coke and do it again. It's gonna take practice. This is called cooperative learning, and sympathizing with the "Other."

    3. Answer the Utterance or the Act: Look at the theoretical explanations of the aesthetics of answerability. Think of how the measures fit your learning. Share with the class what fits, what doesn't fit. This is called engaging in the aesthetic process of sympathizing with Others in search of community.

    4. Ask a Question to Which You'd Like to Hear the Answer: How about "How will I know when I'm being creative?" Consider that our aesthetics is based on answerability and you'll have a clue, but we'll need to answer this many times before it stops popping up in your head unbidden. This is called courage, when you know we've said it or written it somewhere, and yet there's that question again, in your head? Ask it. Maybe this time a classmate will have an answer. And just maybe the classmate will have some of the answer, but not quite all of it. And as we discuss it, we'll all get our aesthetics down a little clearer.

    5. Answer Creatively: Notice someone who seems unusually silent. Say "hello." Encourage them to talk by sharing one of your own utterances in the patio or the hallways. Listen. This is called creating community for a nurturant climate of learning.

    Then make sure that your participation is either entered in our class book, or send us a short e-mail. Details count. "I had a good time in class today" won't cut it.

    Example: "I practiced creating community for a climate of learning by talking to a classmate. Brief details: we had a coke and agreed the class approach is weird, but we do like being able to use many different approaches to measurement."

    * * * * *

    Minimal Requirements in Statistics: First and Second Weeks

    Week 2: Week of September 1, 2003
    Topic: What Numbers Can and Can't Do



  • Site Copyright: Jeanne Curran and Susan R. Takata and Individual Authors, June 2003.
    "Fair use" encouraged.