General Characteristics of Agriculture, Industrial, and Information Age Educational Systems

Invention of writing with need to keep records of planting and harvests, taxation and barter, in agricultural age; education limited to an elite. (Earlier focus on oral traditions--from elders, during hunting and gathering age)

  • Industrial Age:
  • Mass public education: similar standards for all, which was considered democratic; an educated middle class seen as foundation for a democratic society; tradional educational institutions have monopoly on learning

  • Information Age:
  • Diversified educational models necessary to meet diverse needs of students of all ages and different racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds; lifetime learning necessary to keep updated in one's field, as technological and social changes escalate; retraining of industrial workers necessary; community and corporate learning centers, in addition to traditional educational institutions; also distance learning, computer/multimedia/interactive educational packages, internet, and virtual reality as additional tools for learning.

    Information/Data on Educational System of Spain

    Article 27 of the Spanish Constitution 1978 reads:
    1. Everyone is entitled to education. Freedom of instruction is recognized.
    2. Education shall have as its objective the full development of the human character compatible with respect for the democratic principles of co-existence and for the basic rights and freedoms.
    3. The public authorities guarantee the right of the parents to ensure that their children receive religious and moral instruction that is in accordance with their own convictions.
    4. Elementary education is compulsory and free.
    5. The public authorities guarantee the right of everyone to education, through general planning of education, with the effective participation of all parties concerned and the setting up of teaching establishments.
    6. The right of individuals and legal entities to set up teaching establishments is recognized, provided they respect Constitutional principles.
    7. Teachers, parents and, when appropriate, pupils, shall share in the control and management of all the centres maintained by the Administration out of public funds, under the terms to be laid down the law.
    8. The public authorities shall inspect and standardize the educational system in order to garantee compliance with the law.
    9. The public authorities shall give aid to teaching establishments which meet the requirements to be laid down by the law.
    10. The autonomy of the Universities is recognized, under the terms to be laid down by the law.

    The Spanish Educational System.
    The educational law of 1990, the Ley Organica de Ordenacion General del Sistema Educativo (LOGSE) (Law on the General Organization of the Educational System), established a new system which started in 1991-92 school-year. The main points of the new system are the following:

    1. Basic education is compulsory and free of charge, and it is extended up to the age of 16, the legal age for starting work.
    2. The educational system includes general and special education, i.e. the different levels of education are adapted to suit students with special needs.
    3. All students have basic vocational training, which is given in secondary education. Specific vocational training is organized at two levels, the first at the end of compulsory secondary education, and the higher level at the end of the 'Baccalaureate'.
    4. Improvement in the quality of teaching must be achieved via the renewal of the contents of the courses, improvement in human resources and material resources, and better use of the various instruments of the educational system.
    5. Religious instruction is must be available at all schools, but it is voluntary for pupils.
    6. Special systems are applied for artistic education and language learning.


    The main area of social change in Spain during the eighties was the educational system, in terms of the sums spent on education by the public sector. Spain's education system has entered the Information Age.