General Characteristics of Agriculture, Industrial, and Information Age Political Systems

Pre-democratic political systems of various kinds, in feudal systems and ancient empires

  • Industrial Age:
  • Representative democracy and a multiparty political system for the rising middle class in West, with democracy based on an informed, educated middle class; democratic centralism in socialist countries, with population also educated

  • Information Age:
  • Global democratization trends, in former communist and South countries today, with modern information technologies making control of information to citizens by dictators difficult. Social-political change on important issues initiated by direct, grassroots, participatory democracy involving media coverage, electronic networking on Internet, FAXs, and other forms of "electronic democracy." Increasing numbers of issues (arms control; free trade; AIDS; pollution; and terrorism) require global cooperation and/or local action, not just national policies, to solve them.

    Information/Data on Political System of Spain

    Spain is a parliamentary monarchy. Although King Juan Carlos I is the chief of state, the prime minister is head of government. The prime minister is Felipe Gonzalez Marquez from the Socialist party. There is a bicameral legislature (Cortes Generales), consisting of a 255-seat Senate and a 350-seat Congress of Deputies, the latter having the greater power. The voting age is 18. The primary political parties are the Spanish Socialist Workers Party and the Popular Party. Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities (regions). Each region has its own rights, elected officials, and justice system.


    Article 1 of the 1978 Constitution lays downs that Spain is hereby established as a social and democratic State, subject to the rule of law, and advocating as higher values of the legal order freedom, justice, equality and political pluralism. National sovereignty is vested in the Spanish people, from whom emanate the powers of the State. The political form of the Spanish State is that of a Parliamentary Monarchy. Spain's political system has entered the Information Age.