PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COMMON WOODS

Physical Properties of Common Woods



Values of density marked * are for air dry samples.

The following table presents values for the properties of common woods.

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Common name Botanical name Density, g/cc Density, lbs/cu.ft. Modulus of rupture, air dry

kg/sq.mm.

Modulus of elasticity, air dry,

kg/sq.mm.

Alder 0.38 23.7
Applewood or wild apple Pyrus malus 0.745 46.51 8.96 894.
Ash, black Fraxinus nigra 0.526 32.84 8.97 1126.
Ash, blue quadrangulata 0.603 37.65 9.82 984.
Ash, green Fraxinus pennsylvanica lanceolata 0.610 38.08 10.04 1170.
Ash, white Fraxinus americana 0.638 39.83 11.01 1249.
Aspen Populus tremuloides 0.401 25.03 6.04 838.
Aspen, large tooth PopuIus grandidentata 0.412 25.72 6.38 996.
Balsa (Tropical America) Ochroma *0.11-0.2 6.86-12.49 .
Basswood Tilia glabra or Tilia americanus 0.398 24.85 6.13 1029.
Beech Fagus grandifolia or Fagus americana 0.655 40.89 10.25 1180.
Beech, blue Carpinus caroliniana 0.717 44.76 8.48 752.
Birch, gray Betula populifolia 0.552 34.46 6.88 797.
Birch, paper Betula papyrifera 0.600 37.46 8.79 1119.
Birch, sweet Betula lenta 0.714 44.58 11.81 1520.
Birch, yellow Betula lutea 0.668 41.70 11.88
Boxwood/Buis Buxus sempervirens 0.95-1.1 59.3-68.6
Buckeye, yellow Aesculus octandra 0.383 23.91 5.36 829.
Butternut Juglans cinerea 0.404 25.22 5.72 830.
Cedar, eastern red Juniperus virginiana 0.492 30.72 6.07 612.
Cedar, northern white Thuja occidentalis 0.315 19.67 4.56 568.
Cedar, southern white Chamaecyparis thvoides 0.352 21.98 4.77 655.
Cedar, (Tropical American) Cedrela odorata *0.37-0.70 23.10-43.70.
Cedar, western red Thuja plicata 0.344 21.48 5.38 819.
Cherry, black Prunus serotina 0.534 33.34 8.81 1046.
Cherry, wild red Prunus pennsylvanica 0.425 26.53 6.10 892.
Chestnut Castanea dentata 0.454 28.34 6.16 870.
Cocobolo Dalbergia retusa 1.10 68.6
Coralwood Guilbourtia spp. 1.1 68.6
Corkwood Leitneria floridana 0.207 12.92.
Cottonwood, eastern Populus deltoides 0.433 27.03 6.14 972.
Cypress, southern Taxodium distichum 0.482 30.09 7.44 1010.
Dogwood (flowering) Cornus florida 0.796 49.69 10.72 1085.
Douglas fir (coast type) Pseudotsuga taxifolia 0.512 31.96 8.44 1357.
Douglas fir (mountain type) Pseudotsuga taxifolia 0.446 27.84 6.72 981.
Ebony, Andaman marble-wood (India) Diospyros kursii *0.978 61.06 7.80 1270.
Ebony, Ebène marbre (Maritius, E. Africa) Diospyros melanida *0.768 47.95 5.55 1007.
Elm, American Ulmus americana 0.554 34.59 8.44 948.
Elm, rock Ulmus racemosa or Ulmus thomasi 0.658 41.08 10.55 1086.
Elm, slippery Ulmus fulva or pubescens 0.568 35.46 9.29 1050.
Eucalyptus, Karri (W. Australia) Eucalyptus diversicolor *0.829 51.75 12.16 1885.
Eucalyptus, Mahogany (New South Wales) Eucalyptus

hemilampra

*1.058 66.05 11.50 1608.
Eucalyptus, West Australian mahogany Eucalyptus marginata *0.787 49.13 10.54 1462.
Fir, balsam Abies balsamea 0.414 25.85 5.42 879.
Fir, Douglas (See Douglas Fir).
Fir, silver Abies amabilis 0.415 25.91 6.69 1076.
Concalco Alves .96 60.0
Greenheart (British Guiana) Nectandra rodioei *1.06-1.23 66.18-76.79.
Grenadilla (Mpingo) Dalbergia melanoxylon 1.2-1.25 74.9-78.0
Gum, black Nyssa sylvatica 0.552 34.46 6.82 839.
Gum, blue Eucalyptus globulus 0.796 49.69 11.75 1683.
Gum, red Liquidambar styraciflua 0.530 33.09 8.40 1045.
Gum, tupelo Nyssa aquatica 0.524 32.71 6.85 889.
Hemlock eastern Tsuga canadensis 0.431 26.91 6.06 846.
Hemlock, mountain Tsuga martensiana 0.480 29.97 6.95 797.
Hemlock, western Tsuga heterophylla 0.432 26.97 6.51 1015.
Hickory, bigleaf shagbark Hicoria laciniosa 50.53 12.91 1335.
Hickory, mockernut Hicoria alba 51.21 13.56 1570.
Hickory, pignut Hicoria glabra 51.21 14 25 1603.
Hickory, shagbark Hicoria ovata 52.17 14.39 1525.
Hornbeam Ostrya virginiana 0.762 47.57 10.22 1199.
Ironwood, black Rhamnidium ferreum 1.077-1.30 67.24-81.1 18.10 2100.
Jacarandá, Brazilian rosewood Dalbergia nigra *0.85 53.07
Larch, western Larix occidentalis 0.587 36.65 8.24 1188.
Lignum Vitae Guaiacum officinale and Guaiacum sanctum 1.25-1.33 78 - 83
Locust, black or yellow Robinia pseudacacia 0.708 44.20 13.63 1448.
Locust honey Gleditsia triacanthos 0.666 41.58 10.59 1165.
Magnolia, cucumber Magnolia acuminata 0.516 32.21 8.91 1276.
Mahogany (W. Africa) Khaya ivorensis *0.668 41.70 <12.38 1079.
Mahogany (E. India) Swietenia macrophylla *0.54 33.71 6.73 817.
Mahogany (E. India) Swietenia mahogani *0.54 33.71 7.10 890.
Maple, black Acer nigrum 0.620 >38.71 9 37 1141.
Maple, red Acer rubrum 0.546 34.09 9.35 1155.
Maple, silver Acer saccharinum 0.506 31.59 6.34 805.
Maple, sugar Acer saccharum 0.676 42.20 10.97 1290.
Mpingo (Grenadilla) Dalbergia melanoxylon 1.2-1.25 74.9-78.0
Oak, black Quercus velutina 0.669 41.77 9.66 1153.
Oak, bur Quercus macrocarpa 0.671 41.89 7.21 723.
Oak, canyon live Quercus chrysolepis 0.838 52.32 9.26 1149.
Oak, laurel Quercus montana 0.674 42.08 9.45 1114.
Oak, live Quercus virginiana 0.977 60.99 12.95 1381.
Oak, pin Quercus pallustris 0.677 42.27
Oak, post Quercus stellata or Quercus minor 0.738 46.07 9.30 1063.
Oak, red Quercus borealis 0.657 41.02 10.02 1274.
Oak, scarlet coccinea 0.709 44.26
Oak, swamp chestnut Quercus montana (Quercus prinus) 0.756 47.20 9.73 1247.
Oak swamp white Quercus bicolor or Quercus platanoides 0.792 49.44 12.36 1446.
Oak, white Quercus alba 0.710 44.33 10.68 1251.
Persimmon Diospyros virginiana 0.776 48.45 12.72 1443.
Pine, eastern white Pinus strobus 0.373 23.29 6.26 898.
Pine, jack Pinus banksiana or Pinus divericata 0.461 28.78 5.70 868.
Pine, loblolly Pinus taeda 0.593 37.02 9.09 1354.
Pine, longleaf Pinus palustris 0.638 39.83 10.90 1445.
Pine, pitch Pinus rigida 0.542 33.84 7.40 965.
Pine, red Pinus resinosa 0.507 31.65 8.81 1264.
Pine, shortleaf Pinus echinata 0.584 36.45 9.34 1345.
Poplar, balsam Populus balsamifera or Populus candicans 0.331 20.66 4.76 716.
Poplar, yellow Liriodendron tulipifera 0.427 26.66 6.52 1058.
Redwood Sequoia sempervirens 0.436 27.22 7.56 958.
Rosewood, Bolivian 0.71 44.3
Rosewood, E. Indian 0.78 48.7
Sassafras Sassafras uariafolium 0.473 29.53 6.43 790.
Satinwood (Ceylon) Chloroxylon swietenia *1.031 64.37 9.68 1101.
Sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum 0.593 37.02 8.24 1083.
Spruce, black Picea mariana 0.428 26.72 7.24 1069.
Spruce, red Picea rubra or Picea rubens 0.413 25.78 7.15 1071.
Spruce, white Picea glauca 0.431 26.91 6.38 1001.
Sycamore Platanus occidentalis 0.539 33.65 7.12 1002.
Tamarack Larix laricina or Larix americana 0.558 34.84 8.23 1154.
Teak (India) Tectona grandis *0.5892 36.33 9.04 1195.
Walnut, black Juglans nigra 0.562 35.09 10.42 1185.
Willow, black Salix nigra 0.408 25.47 4.42 513.


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