L. Mark Carrier, Publications

Carrier, L. M., Cheever, N. A., Rosen, L. R., Benitez, S., & Chang, J. (2009). Multitasking Across Generations: Multitasking Choices and Difficulty Ratings in Three Generations of Americans. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 483-489. (PDF)


(Abstract) This study investigated whether changes in the technological/social environment in the United States over time have resulted in concomitant changes in the multitasking skills of younger generations. One thousand, three hundred and nineteen Americans from three generations were queried to determine their at-home multitasking behaviors. An anonymous online questionnaire asked respondents to indicate which everyday and technology-based tasks they choose to combine for multitasking and to indicate how difficult it is to multitask when combining the tasks. Combining tasks occurred frequently, especially while listening to music or eating. Members of the ‘‘Net Generation” reported more multitasking than members of ‘‘Generation X,” who reported more multitasking than members of the ‘‘Baby Boomer” generation. The choices of which tasks to combine for multitasking were highly correlated across generations, as were difficulty ratings of specific multitasking combinations. The results are consistent with a greater amount of general multitasking resources in younger generations, but similar mental limitations in the types of tasks that can be multitasked.

Rosen, L. R., Cheever, N. A., & Carrier, L. M. (2008). The Impact of Parental Attachment Style, Limit Setting and Monitoring on Teen MySpace Behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 459-471. (PDF)


(Abstract) Parent and teen MySpace user pairs completed online surveys administered in June (N = 266) and September 2006 (N = 341) to assess relationships between parenting styles and limit setting and monitoring of online behaviors, the prevalence of Internet dangers and pre-teen and teen MySpace behaviors. Cross-comparison measures of MySpace usage, parenting style, limit setting/monitoring, MySpace problems, and media perceptions were used. Parenting styles were strongly related to adolescent MySpace experiences, behaviors, and attitudes, with some age differences. Parents with older children were more likely to have Neglectful or Indulgent parenting styles and less likely to set limits on online behavior. The extent of sexual solicitation, pornography, and cyberbullying was relatively low as compared with studies asserting a high incidence of Internet-related problems. Parents' high estimates of online dangers were not matched by their low rates of setting limits and monitoring teens. Theoretical and practical perspectives of the results are offered to enhance social networking experiences for parents and their children.

Carrier, L. M. (2003). College students' choices of study strategies. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 96, 54-56.


(Abstract) For a closed-book examination, study strategies that could promote deep processing correlated positively with scores but were not likely to be used by the 46 students. For an open-book, open-note examination, strategies that might have led to confusion regarding the locations of material in the textbook and lecture notes correlated negatively with scores, although they were not likely to be used by the 58 students.

Carrier, L. M., & Rosen, L. (2002). An Electronic Portfolio Project with Graduating Psychology Majors. Exchanges: The Online Journal of Teaching and Learning in the CSU. URL: http://www.exchangesjournal.org/classroom/1108_Carrier_Rosen_pg1.html


(Excerpt) In the Fall 2000 semester, a pilot project was undertaken in which graduating psychology majors at the California State University, Dominguez Hills created e-portfolios as part of a course requirement. The e-portfolio was intended to serve as (a) an assessment of the student's understanding of psychological material and concepts, (b) a vehicle for the student to highlight his or her success as a CSUDH psychology undergraduate, (c) a product that could serve as an electronic resume for future employment (Casson, 1999), and (d) a graduate school application adjunct. The course was Senior Seminar in Psychology, which ". . . integrate[s] previous work and experience by emphasizing the application of theoretical models and research designs and the relationship among theory, research, and the dissemination of research findings" (University Catalog, 2001, p. 340). The specific topic of the seminar varies by instructor and is usually associated with the instructor's areas of expertise. In this case, the co-instructors (the authors) selected Applied Cognitive Psychology as the content area for the course.

Pashler, H., & Carrier, M. (1996).  Structures, processes, and the "flow of information".  In E. L. Bjork & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Vol. 10: Memory (pp. 3-29).  San Diego: Academic Press.

Carrier, L. M., & Pashler, H. (1995).  Attentional limits in memory retrieval.   Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 1339-1348. (PDF)


(Abstract) The hypothesis that episodic memory retrieval can occur in parallel with other cognitive processes was tested in 2 experiments. Participants memorized words and then performed speeded cued recall (Experiment 1) or speeded yes-no recognition (Experiment 2) in a dual-task situation. The psychological refractory period design was used: The participant was presented with a single test item at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs; 50-1,200 ms) after a tone was presented in an auditory-manual 2-alternative choice reaction task. Reducing the SOA increased the memory task reaction times. This slowing was additive with the effect of variables slowing retrieval in the memory task. The results indicate that memory retrieval is delayed by central processes in the choice task, arguing that the central bottleneck responsible for dual-task interference encompasses memory retrieval as well as response selection.

Pashler, H., Carrier, M., & Hoffman, J. (1993).  Saccadic eye movements and dual-task interference.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46A, 51-82. (PDF)


(Abstract) Four dual-task experiments required a speeded manual choice response to a tone in a close temporal proximity to a saccadic eye movement task. In Experiment 1, subjects made a saccade towards a single transient; in Experiment 2, a red and a green colour patch were presented to left and right, and the saccade was to which ever patch was the pre-specified target colour. There was some slowing of the eye movement, but neither task combination showed typical dual-task interference (the "psychological refractory effect"). However, more interference was observed when the direction of the saccade depended on whether a central colour patch was red or green, or when the saccade was directed towards the numerically higher of two large digits presented to the left and the right. Experiment 5 examined a vocal second task, for comparison. The findings might reflect the fact that eye movements can be directed by two separate brain systems—the superior colliculus and the frontal eye fields; commands from the latter but not the former may be delayed by simultaneous unrelated sensorimotor tasks.

Carrier, M., & Pashler, H. (1992).  The influence of retrieval on retention.  Memory & Cognition, 20, 620-633. (PDF)


(Abstract) Four experiments tested the hypothesis that successful retrieval of an item from memory affects retention only because the retrieval provides an additional presentation of the target item. Two methods of learning paired associates were compared. In the pure study trial (pure ST condition) method, both items of a pair were presented simultaneously for study. In the test trial/study trial (TTST condition) method, subjects attempted to retrieve the response term during a period in which only the stimulus term was present (and the response term of the pair was presented after a 5-sec delay). Final retention of target items was tested with cued-recall tests. In Experiment 1, there was a reliable advantage in final testing for nonsense-syllable/number pairs in the TTST condition over pairs in the pure ST condition. In Experiment 2, the same result was obtained with Eskimo/English word pairs. This benefit of the TTST condition was not apparently different for final retrieval after 5 min or after 24 h. Experiments 3 and 4 ruled out two artifactual explanations of the TTST advantage observed in the first two experiments. Because performing a memory retrieval (TTST condition) led to better performance than pure study (pure ST condition), the results reject the hypothesis that a successful retrieval is beneficial only to the extent that it provides another study experience.


For more information, contact Dr. Carrier at lcarrier@csudh.edu (310-243-2325). The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author and are not endorsed by, or do they necessarily reflect the opinion of California State University, Dominguez Hills.